PAHSA* tour of St. Albertus Church, Detroit, Michigan
The Oldest Polish Roman Catholic Church in Detroit
this portion is under construction-
we will have photos up soon to go with the descriptions.
we apologize for the delay
feel free to read on to learn about the art in our church
Welcome to Historic St. Albertus Church, the mother church of the Detroit-area Polonia.
We thank you for spending this time within the walls of Detroit’s oldest Polish Church.
Since its closure in 1990 as an active parish, St. Albertus Church has become a source of
Polish history and culture. We hope that your visit here will be educational as well as
inspirational, as you come in contact with the richness of Polish culture.
The parish was founded in 1872 by Fr. Szymon (Simon) Wieczorek.
It became aspiritual and devotional home to many Kashubian (see top of page 2) Polish immigrants who arrived in Detroit between the end of the Civil War (1865) and the beginning of the First World War (1914). The church was built from 1883 to 1885. It was dedicated by Bishop Caspar Henry Borgess, the Bishop of Detroit, on July 4, 1885.
The architect, Henry Engelbert, was born in Germany to parents of Swedish descent. He also designed the Detroit churches of St. Casimir and St. Francis of Assisi. The building was constructed by the Spitzely Brothers Construction Company of Detroit and Patrick Dee at a cost of over $80,000. It was the largest Catholic Church in the State of Michigan at the time of its construction, having a seating capacity of 2,500. It was the first church in the City of Detroit to be equipped with steam heat and electrical lighting. Its floor stretches 208-feet in length and 75-feet in width. The ceiling hovers 40-feet above the floor, while the transept climbs to 107-feet. In addition, our four bells were installed in 1884 for a cost of $2,000.
NOW FOR THE “TOUR”
The doors leading from the vestibule into the Church are inscribed in Polish from the Gospel: “Dom mój jest domem modlitwy” (“My house is a house of prayer.”)
Entering the Church, the seated figure seen above the main altar is that of St. Albertus (Święty Wojciech). The Latin inscription reads, “Sancte Adalberte, ora pro nobis” (“St. Adalbert, pray for us.”) Up above, are the words, “Królowo Polski wstaw się za nami” (“Queen of Poland remain with us.”)
The stained glass window in the upper-left of the main altar contains an inscription which
reads “Sancte Henrice ora pro nobis” (“Saint Henry pray for us.”) He was the patron saint of Bishop Caspar Henry Borgess. The inscriptions read in Latin, “Deo dedit masterissimus Dominus” and “C.H. Borgess Episcopus Detroitus” (“Dedicated to the almighty Lord God” and Caspar H. Borgess Bishop of Detroit.”) St. Henry was King of Germany in the 10th-11th centuries and was also the Holy Roman Emperor.
The stained glass window in the upper-right contains an inscription which reads “Sancte Dominice ora pro nobis” (“St. Dominic pray for us.”) St. Dominic was the patron saint of Fr. Dominik (Dominic) Kolasiński, the pastor of St. Albertus at the time. The bottom inscription reads “Fr. D. Kolasiński, Pastor of St. Adalbertus.”
* Polish American Historical Site Association is a 501(c)(3) corporation.
The large mural to the right of the main altar is of “Jacob’s ladder,” an Old Testament
item. The large mural to the left is that of the “Transfiguration.” Moses stands on
Christ’s left holding the Ten Commandments. The prophet, Elijah, is to the right.
There is a “Jerusalem Cross” in the marble floor of the sanctuary. Presently, it is hidden by the area rug on which stands the portable altar.
A painting above the side altar to the north depicts St. Stanislaus Kostka (1550-1568), a native Polish novice of the Society of Jesus. Here he is shown having a vision of an angel serving him Holy Communion. A replica of his tomb, a rather unusual feature, is under the altar. Figures of two other favorite saints, St. Aloysius Gonzaga (left) and
St. Anthony of Padua are on each side of the mural. Although not a Kashub, St. Stanislaus Kostka is revered by many Kashubs and many Kashubian churches are named after him. (Kashubs are from the area of Poland bordering the Baltic Sea.)
A painting above the side altar to the south depicts Our Lady giving the rosary to St. Dominic. On the right-side of the mural is St. Catherine of Siena, Italy. A replica of the tomb of St. Hedwig (1174-1243), rests under this altar in the crypt. The small statue on the left is of St. Elizabeth of Hungary, a niece of St. Hedwig. The small statue to the
right is of St. Barbara. The Rosary Society was the second oldest society of St. Albertus Church (the St. Stanislaus Kostka Society was the first).
Among noteworthy pieces in the Church are the Stations of the Cross. The titles of each station are uniquely labeled with a paucity (scarcity) of words.
Stations of the Cross: (starting on the north side)
I Skazanie: Jesus is condemned to death.
II Bierze Krzyż: Jesus takes up His cross.
III Upadek: Jesus falls the first time under the cross.
IV Spotkanie: Jesus meets his afflicted mother.
V Cyreneusz: Simon of Cyrene is forced to take up the cross.
VI Święty Weronika: Veronica wipes the face of Jesus.
VII Upadek: Jesus falls a second time.
VIII Niewiasty: Jesus meets the women of Jerusalem.
IX Upadek: Jesus falls a third time.
X Obnażenie: Jesus is stripped of His garments.
XI Ukrzyżowanie: Jesus is nailed to the cross.
XII Skonanie: Jesus dies on the cross.
XIII Zdjecie z krzyża: The body of Jesus is placed in the arms of His mother.
XIV Złożenie do grobu: Jesus is laid in the tomb.
To the east of the main altar, there are twelve panels depicting scriptural events;
six on each side.
From the south side (Willis Ave.) from the east transept to the main altar: Assumption of Mary; The Annunciation; St. Clare defending the convent; Stigmata of St. Francis of Assisi; St. Anthony of Padua (a Franciscan) holding a Monstrance (note the kneeling donkey) and St. Margaret Mary Alacoque.
From the north side (Canfield Ave.) from the east transept to the main altar: St. Albertus (in the shadow of Death) preaching to the Prussians; St. Albertus martyred by the Prussians; St. Joseph’s death; Jesus, the boy carpenter; St. Hyacinth and St. Thomas Aquinas.
The panels in the nave contain murals of twelve Marian shrines in Poland.
These are “Kościoł Mariacki” (Churches dedicated to Mary).
From the south side (Willis Avenue) from the back of the Church to the front:
These shrines are located in Kashubia and Poznania:
Gostyń – similar to Santa Maria de la Salute in Venice, Italy
Shrine of Holy Mother “Spiritual Rose;” built 1675 to 1698
Gietrzwałd – Shrine of Our Lady of Gietrzwałd; the Nursing Madonna;
Swarzewo – Kashuby – Holy Madonna of Swarzewo; Queen of the Polish Sea;
“Kashubian Częstochowa”; built 1877 to 1880
Lubawa – Church of St. Ann; built 1233 to 1330
Borek – Monastery of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin;
Our Lady of Consolation; built around 1668
Nowe Miasto (New Town) – northwest of Elbląg
Holy Lady of Łąkowski (Najśw. Panny Łąkowskiej); built around 1639
From the north side (Canfield Avenue) from the back of the Church to the front:
These shrines are located in southern Poland (Galicia):
Leżajsk – Our Lady of Consolation; built in 1606
Lwów – the Latin Cathedral; built from 1350 to 1479
Kraków – Church of St. Mary; started in 1222, finished 1522
Kraków at Wawel – Wawel Cathedral of Sts. Wenceslas and Stanislaus; Our Lady
of the Snows; built around 1142
Zembrzyce – Blessed Mother of Zembrzyce; built 1530 – 1630
Częstochowa – Pauline Monastery; Jasna Góra (Bright Mount); spiritual capital of
Poland; started in 1382
The dark wood altar with gold leaf in the northernmost corner contains a large statue of St. Joseph with baby Jesus. (The two dark wood altars with gold leaf are from the 1872 St. Albertus Church.) St. Albertus (Wojciech), with a flaming heart in his right hand, is on the left and St. Margaret, Virgin & Martyr is on the right. We think this statue of St. Albertus comes from the 1872 St. Albertus Church.
On the altar in the southernmost corner stands a statue of the Sacred Heart of Jesus
flanked by St. Francis of Assisi (left) and St. Clare of Assisi (right).
Other stained glass windows in the south-transept of the church is of the “Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary” with the Latin “Sursum Corda” (“Lift up your hearts”) at the top; in the north-transept is of “St. Stanislaus Kostka,” a Polish novice seminarian with the Latin “Laudate Dominum” (“Praise the Lord”) at the top.
The murals on the back wall of the Church depict (on the north side) “A mother and her 3 children praying to the Blessed Virgin” (“Shrine of Our Lady of Stryj, Poland”) and (on the south side) “Jesus banishing the moneychangers from the Temple.”
Other statues you will see: (southside transept) St. Francis of Assisi, Italy with an inscription in Latin, “Omnia Relinque Et Invenies Omnia” (“Give up the old and take up the new”); St. Anne (mother of Mary) with an inscription in Polish, “Św. Anna, módł się za nami,” (“St. Anna, pray for us”); St. Anthony of Padua and a statue of Our Lady of the Rosary.
(northside transept) St. Theresa, the little flower who is the same as St. Thèrése of Liseaux; two Infant of Prague statues; St. Stanislaus Bishop & Martyr (with a green garment) and the Piéta.
INRI...Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum...Jesus of Nazareth King of the Jews.
There are several banners from St. Stanislaus Bishop & Martyr Church which is a daughter-church to our church.
There are many angels in St. Albertus Church and there are 9 choirs of angels in
heaven; seraphs, cherubs, thrones, dominions, virtues, powers, principalities, archangels and angels (in order from highest to lowest).
On the marble pulpit are figures of the four evangelists: Matthew, Mark, Luke and John (from left to right).
Matthew was a tax collector and an apostle and is symbolized by a winged man;
Mark is symbolized by a winged male lion (with a mane);
Luke was a physician and a painter and is symbolized by an ox. Legend has it that Luke
painted a portrait depicting the Blessed Virgin Mary and Jesus which became the portrait known as “Our Lady of Częstochowa”;
John was an apostle and is symbolized by a young man or an eagle.
Medallions seen throughout the Church:
“IHS” or “In Hoc Signo” or “In this sign”
“SM” or “St. Mary” “SA” or “St. Albertus”
The Greek “alpha” (Ā) and the “omega” (Ω)…”The beginning and the end”
A sidewise “X” and “P” (χ and ρ) (the first two letters of “Christ” in Greek...Chi Rho)
The Seal of the United States (olive branch in the right talon; arrows in the left talon);
the Polish eagle.
Inscriptions on the stained glass windows:
“In hoc signo vinces” (“In this sign you shall conquer”)
“Ofiarowały Dziewczęta parafii Św. Wojciecha” (“Offering by the young girls of St. Albertus parish”)
“Ofiarowałi Młodzieńcy parafii Św. Wojciecha” (“Offering by the youth of St. Albertus parish”)
“Ofiarowała Elżbieta Rafińska” (“An offering by Elizabeth Rafinski”)
“Ofiarowało Bractwo Różańca Wiecznego” (“Offering by the everlasting Rosary Society”)
“Ofiarowała Bractwo Stanisława Kostki” (“Offering by the Stanislaus Kostka Society”)
Inscriptions on pictures:
“Jezu ufam tobie” (“Jesus, I trust in you”)
Latin inscription on the wooden “Holy Oils” repository: “Olea Sancta.”
Stained glass window themes of scriptural events (southside from back of Church to the front):
Donated by Jacob J. Audretsch
(Under this window is a Nativity Scene and a display of handblown glass Christmas
ornaments from Poland).
Ofiarowały Dziewczęta parafii Św. Wojciecha (Offering by the young girls of
St. Albertus parish)
Ofiarowała Elżbieta Rafińska (Offering by Elizabeth Rafinski)
“Lazarus and the Rich Man” – “I Psi Zychodzac Lizałi Wrzody Jego” (“Even the dogs would come and lick his sores.”) Window by Franz Mayer & Co. Dec. 15, 1905
“Return of the prodigal son” – “Ojcze, Zgrzeszyłem Niebu I Przed Toba” (“Father, I have sinned against heaven and before thee.”) Window by Franz Mayer & Co. June 20, 1904.
The Young Jesus, around 12 years of age
Ave Maria (Hail Mary) Ecce Agnus Dei (Behold the Lamb of God)
Ofiarowała Bractwo Różańca Wiecznego or Offering by the Everlasting Rosary Society
The Assumption of Our Lady…the upper medallion depicts a sailboat on the sea…
“Moses striking the rock”…Window by Franz Mayer & Co. Nov. 21, 1924
Melchizedek, the priest-king of Salem with a chalice, blessing Abraham upon his return
from battle and served him bread and wine and is taken as an archetype of the
priesthood of Christ. “The sacrifice of Melchizedek”…Window by Franz Mayer &
Co. Nov. 21, 1924
Stained glass window themes of scriptural events (northside from back of Church to the front):
Donated by John Steiner and John Pommer
(Under this window is a display of European fashion).
In the northeastern corner of the nave is our “Lord’s Tomb” (Grób Pański) obtained from Fr. George Rutkowski of Our Lady Help of Christians Church in Detroit, MI.
Ofiarowałi Młodzieńcy parafii Św. Wojciecha or Offering by the youth of St. Albertus
Baptism of Mieszko I in 966 (1000 years of Christianity in Poland).. Fr. A. Guzicki
This window was installed in 1966 to celebrate the millennium of Christianity in Poland. It depicts the baptism of Poland’s first ruler, Prince Mieszko I. Our Lady
of Częstochowa, Queen of Poland, can be seen in the medallion at the top of this
window. Window by Thompson Stained Glass, Detroit.
Mary Magdalen and her sister, Martha, pleading with Jesus to raise their brother,
Lazarus, from the dead – “Lazarzu, Wynidź Z Grobu” (“Lazarus, come forth from thy grave.”) “Raising of Lazarus” Window by Franz Mayer & Co. Dec.15, 1905
Mary Magdalen anointing or washing the feet of Jesus – “Odpuszcza Ją Się Tobie Grzechy” (“I have forgiven thee thy sins.”) “Mary Magdalene anointing Our Lord’s feet” Window by Franz Mayer & Co. June 20, 1904
Św. Wojciecha (St. Albertus) with the Greek symbols “Alpha” and “Omega.”
Ofiarowała Bractwo Stanisława Kostki (Offering by the Stanislaus Kostka Society)
The window depicts St. Stanislaus Kostka. In the upper medallion is the paschal lamb with a staff.
Jesus and Mary at the deathbed of Joseph (Joseph is the Patron Saint of a happy death). “Death of St. Joseph” Window by Franz Mayer & Co. Nov. 21, 1924
Jesus blessing the children – “Dopuście Dziatkom Iść Do Mnie” (“Let the little children come to me.”) “Christ blessing children” Window by Franz Mayer & Co. Dec.15, 1905
About the life of St. Adalbert (Albertus), Bishop and Martyr:
Swięty Wojciech (St. Albertus) was born in Bohemia (the present day western Czech Republic) in the year 956. He was appointed Bishop of Prague at age 27. He established a Benedictine Abbey at Brevnov. St. Albertus started doing missionary work among the pagan Prussians. A rumor spread that he was a Polish spy and he was ordered to leave. When he refused, he was murdered. On April 23, 997 the 41-year-old missionary-bishop was martyred for his strong beliefs by seven spears. Bolesław I, Prince of Poland, ransomed the body of St. Albertus for its weight in gold. He is thought to be the author of the war-song, “Bogurodzica,” which the Poles used to sing when going to battle. He was canonized in 999.
About the name “Adalbert:”
His name was “Vojtěch” in Czech and “Wojciech” in Polish..(Warrior soldier).
He was educated by Archbishop Albert, the Bishop of Magdeburg, East Germany. At his confirmation, Wojciech took the name of his mentor, “Albert.” “Ad” in Latin means “to or for” or “from”…his name became “Adalbert” in English. The Latin “Adalbertus”
About St. Albertus Church today:
Although the parish was closed in 1990, it still stands in the old Polish quarter of the City of Detroit as a silent sentinel with its daughter churches of Sweetest Heart of Mary, St. Josaphat, St. Stanislaus Bishop & Martyr and St. Hyacinth as reminders of the Polish roots of the city. May it continue to thrust its golden cross heavenward awaiting its rightful place in our observance of the great history of the Polish community of Detroit.
May your visit to St. Albertus Church be one of prayer and inspiration.
Compiled by: Thomas Sosnowski, CPA (248) 334-7522 Home phone
Donald Samull, BA History Jason Walewski, Photographer
JT Sosnowski, BS Economics
Would you like to become a member of the Polish American Historical Site Association?
Please contact: Terry Manning at 313.527.9321; or Jean Kulwicki at 313.285.9398; or
Emelie Łagocka Bommarito at 586.294.5245.
Polish American Historical Site Association
4231 St. Aubin
Detroit, Michigan 48207
A short biography of each Saint mentioned in this brochure:
(In alphabetical order)
St. Albertus – please see the previous page.
St. Aloysius Gonzaga – Italian; died 1591; age 23 at death; Jesuit; hailed as a veritable angel in the flesh because of his purity of life; made a vow of virginity at nine years of age; he and St. Stanislaus Kostka were canonized together by Pope Benedict XIII;
Patron of Youth.
St. Anne – mother of the Blessed Virgin Mary; wife of Joachim; also spelled “Ann,” or “Anna”; Patroness of Christian Mothers; grandmother of Jesus.
St. Anthony of Padua – Portuguese; died 1231; age 36 at death; Franciscan; a Doctor of the Church; was a profound theologian, a brilliant preacher and a formidable foe of heresy.
St. Barbara – this glorious virgin, dedicated to Christ, suffered cruel martyrdom in Asia Minor about the year 306; patron saint of Polish miners
St. Catherine of Siena, Italy – Italian; died 1380; age at death 33; Dominican nun; one of the three female Doctors of the Church (the others are St. Theresa of Avila and
St. Thérèse of Lisieux); imprinted with the sacred Stigmata; was largely responsible for the return of Pope Gregory XI from Avignon to Rome.
St. Clare of Assisi, Italy – Italian; died 1253; age 59 at death; received the penitential habit from the hands of Francis of Assisi and founded the Second Franciscan Order (“Poor Clares”).
St. Dominic – Spanish; died 1221; age 51 at death; founder of the Dominican Order;
tradition tells us that the Mother of God appeared and asked him to propagate the devotion of the Holy Rosary as a powerful means of combating error and vice; was first Inquisitor of the Inquisition.
St. Elizabeth of Hungary – Hungarian; died 1231; age 24 at death; niece of St. Hedwig;
At 14, she married Ludwig, who was 21. Ludwig became a saint. They had three children. She was known for her acts of charity, penance and her vigils. St. Elizabeth Church, located at McDougall and Canfield Streets was named after her.
St. Francis of Assisi – Italian; died 1226; age 45 at death; founder of the Franciscan Order; Our Lord favored him with the Stigmata; known as the Seraphic Saint.
St. Hedwig – Duchess of Silesia (Poland); died 1243; age 69 at death; married to Duke Henryk Brodaty (the bearded); had seven children; after the birth of the last child, Hedwig and Henryk took the vow of chastity before the Bishop of Breslau; she gave financial support to many monasteries; her husband died in 1241 in the Battle of Legnica fighting the Mongols. A replica of her tomb is featured at St. Albertus Church. Patroness of Silesia (Śląsk).
St. Henry – German; died 1024; age 52 at death; King of Germany; Holy Roman Emperor; he and his wife, St. Cunegundes, took a vow of chastity; used his power to
extend the kingdom of God.
St. Hyacinth (Jacek) – Polish; Dominican; died 1257; age 72 at death; called “the Apostle of the North;” he met St. Dominic in the course of a journey to Rome; was one of the first to receive at his hands the habit of the newly established Order of Friars Preachers; travelled widely. St. Hyacinth Church is a daughter-Church of St. Albertus and
St. Stanislaus Church.
Infant Jesus of Prague – is a famous statue of infant Jesus located in the Church of Our Lady Victorious in Malá Strana, Prague, Czech Republic. Its history started in the beginning of the 17th century when a statue of the Infant Jesus was brought into Bohemia by a Spanish princess. The exact origin of the Infant Jesus statue was not truly known, but historical sources point to a small 28cm-high sculpture of the Holy Child with a bird in his right hand carved in around the year 1340.
Jacob’s Ladder – refers to a ladder to heaven described in the Book of Genesis
which the biblical patriarch, Jacob, envisioned during his flight from his brother, Esau.
The Jacob’s Ladder at St. Albertus Church has 110 angels according to Fr. Bohdan
Kosicki, a former assistant here and a former pastor of Sw. Heart of Mary Church.
St. Joseph – husband of Mary; foster father of Jesus of Nazareth; a skilled carpenter; is thought to have still been alive when Jesus was 12 years of age; patron saint of a happy
death. Pope Pius IX proclaimed St. Joseph “Patron of the Universal Church.”
St. Mary Magdalen – sister to Martha and Lazarus, was directly converted from a life of sin by our Lord Himself. She was one of the few faithful souls who remained with Christ
during his agony on the Cross.
St. Margaret Mary Alacoque – French; died 1690; age 43 at death; nun of the Visitation Order; preferred silence and prayer to childish amusements; was paralyzed for four years;
having made a vow to the Blessed Virgin to consecrate herself to religious life she was
instantly restored to perfect health.; chosen by God to reveal to the Christian World the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus in 1675.
St. Margaret Virgin & Martyr – an Eastern saint; died 304; patroness of childbirth and pregnant women; in art, she is usually pictured escaping from a dragon (Satan).
Piéta – created by Michelangelo in 1500 when he was in his early twenties; depicts the Virgin Mary holding the body of her son, Jesus Christ, after his death.
Simon of Cyrene – was the person compelled by the Romans to carry the cross of Jesus;
Cyrene, Libya is located in northern Africa.
St. Stanislaus, Bishop and Martyr – Polish; died 1079; age 49 at death; killed by King Bolesław Śmiały (the Bold) during Mass after St. Stanislaus had excommunicated the King. The second patron saint of Poland (next to St. Albertus). St. Stanislaus Church
was a daughter-Church of St. Albertus and Sweetest Heart of Mary Church.
St. Stanislaus Kostka – Polish; died 1568; age 18 at death; Jesuit novice seminarian;
it is said that St. Barbara brought two angels to him during the course of a serious illness in order to give him the Eucharist. A replica of his tomb is featured at St. Albertus Church. The St. Stanislaus Kostka Society is the oldest society at St. Albertus Church.
The Rosary Society is the second oldest. Although not a Kashub, he was revered by many Kashubians; many Kashubian churches were named after him.
St. Thérèse of Lisieux – French; died 1897; age 24 at death; a Doctor of the Church;
also known as “The Little Flower of Jesus” and “St. Theresa of the Child Jesus;” a Carmelite nun; also known for her “Little Way.”
St. Thomas Aquinas – Italian; died 1274; age 49 at death; Dominican; Doctor of the Church (one of thirty male Doctors of the Church); the other male Doctor of the Church featured in St. Albertus Church is St. Anthony of Padua. “Angelic Doctor”..wrote the
Summa Theologica; patron of all Catholic schools; studied under St. Albert Magnus (the Great).
Transfiguration of Jesus – Jesus was transfigured upon a mountain (Mt. Tabor); Jesus
becomes radiant and speaks with Moses and the prophet, Elijah. This was witnessed by the apostles Peter, James the Great and John (the brother of James the Great). The Transfiguration of Christ is the culminating point in Jesus’ public life; Baptism was the starting point and the Ascension was the end. “This is My beloved Son, in Whom I am well pleased; hear Him.”
St. Veronica – a pious matron of Jerusalem; offered Jesus a towel on which He left the imprint of His face. She went to Rome, bringing with her this image of Christ, which was long exposed to public veneration.
Arch – a curved construction built to bridge a gap and support weight above it, or used
ornamentally; a curve or curved shape.
Chancel – the choir and sanctuary of a church.
Lunette – a semicircular panel in a dome or ceiling, especially one occurring under an arch or vault, often decorated with a painting or mural.
Nave – the central part of the church, extending from the vestibule doors to the main altar.
Spandrel – the space between the outer curve of an arch and the rectangular molding that frames it; the space between the exterior curves of adjoining arches and the horizontal molding, etc. above.
Transept – either of the two transverse wings of a cruciform church built at right angles to the nave. The entire transverse section crossing between nave and choir in a cruciform church.
Transverse – crossing from side to side or lying across or crosswise
A mnemonic device to help remember the 12 Apostles
Write the word “BAPTISM” vertically.
T Thomas; Thaddaeus (also called Jude or Judas the Zealot)
I Judas Iscariot; James the Greater; James the Less; John
S Simon (also called Peter); Simon the Canaanite
M Matthew; Matthias
(Judas Iscariot left and Matthias was added.)
Doctors of the Church
Requirements: Eminent learning; a high degree of sanctity and proclamation by the Church
In the Eastern & Western Church: Female Doctors of the Church:
St. John Chrysostom St. Theresa of Avila
St. Basil St. Therese of Lisieux
St. Gregory Nazianzen St. Catherine of Siena, Italy
St. Cyril of Alexandria
St. Cyril of Jerusalem
St. John Damascene
St. Bede the Venerable
St. Gregory the Great
St. Augustine of Hippo
St. Thomas Aquinas
St. Peter Chrysologus
St. Leo I the Great
St. Peter Damian
St. Alphonsus Liguori
St. Francis de Sales
St. Peter Canisius
St. John of the Cross
St. Robert Bellarmine
St. Albert Magnus
St. Anthony of Padua
St. Lawrence of Brindisi